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Tallying the Cost of Growing Older

“There’s only a small chance that you’ll need care for an extended period,” Dr. Johnson said. “But a lot of people will need care for a shorter time, and that will take money.”

Low-income people, who are less able to purchase help but more likely to need it, might qualify for Medicaid, which pays for long-term care. But that could mean a nursing home, because Medicaid waiting lists for home care are years long in some states. A few people, about 10 percent, have bought private long-term care insurance. Others will be left in a bind that financial planning can’t really address.

“That’s something insurance is designed to correct,” Dr. Johnson said.

When the Affordable Care Act passed in 2010, it contained a measure called the Class Act, a voluntary long-term care insurance program that never materialized. Critics feared an actuarial “death spiral”: If ailing workers only enrolled, costs would soon outstrip premiums paid in.

To start a sustainable public insurance program for long-term care, “we’d have to make it mandatory,” Dr. Johnson said. “Everyone would have to contribute.” The payoff: “It would give people peace of mind.”

Washington recently became the first state to establish such a program. Beginning next year, employees must contribute 0.58 percent of their earnings (self-employed workers could opt in, too), or about $290 in annual premiums on a $50,000 salary.

It’s a modest program — starting in 2025, participants can receive up to $36,500 in benefits — but it’s a start on the kind of safety net that the Netherlands, Germany and South Korea already provide. Illinois, Minnesota and Hawaii are also discussing long-term care insurance, Dr. Johnson said.

American families still bear the greatest brunt of responsibility for elder care. Ms. Canu’s family hopes to keep her in the house where she has lived for 44 years. If she had to pay a home health aide or move into assisted living, she or her children would face costs of thousands of dollars a month. That still might happen.